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Research

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The Joint Implementation Coordination Unit (JIKO) within the German Environment Ministry coordinates diverse activities in the context of the two project-based mechanisms, CDM and JI. BMU has contracted the Wuppertal Institute to support JIKO with scientific expertise. The JIKO project team prepares scientific JIKO Policy Papers and shorter JIKO Policy Briefs, analysing individual aspects of the flexible mechanisms, from the evaluation of particular technologies and project types and their applicability in the CDM to the future of flexible mechanisms in an international climate regime beyond the Kyoto Protocol.

Additional to these Papers, relevant research from other sources will be highlighted here occasionally.

A New Approach for Dynamic Crediting Baselines

January 2020 - Under the Paris Agreement, all Parties are obliged to periodically develop NDCs with each NDC presenting a progression beyond the current level of ambition. For cooperative action according to Article 6 of the Agreement, this presents a challenge for demonstrating the additionality of the proposed action, i.e. that these activities would not have happened without support from the Article 6 mechanism. In this context, a new paper presents a concept to dynamically reflect the ambition of the Paris Agreement in the crediting baseline helping to design Art. 6.4 mitigation activities in a way that allows them to help host countries overachieve their NDCs and embark on a transformative pathway. The paper is now available for download. more

Corresponding Adjustments under Article 6

December 2019 - The Paris Agreement builds on an approach that is fundamentally decentralised in nature. This also includes its treatment of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and cooperative approaches among Parties under Article 6, raising numerous questions about the operationalisation of voluntary cooperation. Therefore, a new study supported by the BMU aims at making a step toward a better understanding of the several issues covered by Article 6. more

Beyond the project-based approach

November 2019 - Article 6 of the Paris Agreement could open a new chapter of market-based international cooperation by going beyond the project-based approach known from the Kyoto Protocol, allowing for policy-based and sectoral crediting to take place under the Article 6.4 mechanism. But is the current negotiations text well-suited to make such up-scaled approaches possible? A new policy paper aims to answer this question and is now available for download. more

New reports on Art 6.4 in a net-zero emissions world and private-sector participation

November 2019 - At this year’s climate conference in Madrid, Parties are to complete the rulebook for the use of market-based instruments under the Paris Agreement. Against this backdrop, two new discussion papers published by UBA discuss, how the Article 6.4 mechanism may contribute towards achieving the long-term objective of net-zero GHG emissions world and the participation of the private-sector could be fostered. more

New paper on the lessons learned from the first round of applications under CORSIA

November 2019 - In 2016, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) adopted the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). The scheme requires participating airline operators to purchase carbon offset credits to compensate for the increase in their carbon dioxide emissions from international flights above 2019/2020 levels. A new paper written on behalf of the BMU synthesizes key lessons learned from an assessment of the first 14 applications of carbon-offsetting programs for eligibility under CORSIA and evaluates the degree to which the applicants satisfy the ICAO requirements. more

Briefing Note examines Host Country Authorizations under Article 6

September 2019 - A new briefing note examines the different types of host country approvals necessary for transactions under Articles 6.2 and 6.4 of the Paris Agreement. Building on the experience with mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol, it discusses the various scopes of authorization and contextualizes the Article 6 instruments with respect to their position under the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) of the host country and the investor country. more

The Continuity Question for the Clean Development Mechanism

August 2019 - Over the past 15 years, the Clean Development Mechanism has innovated and transformed global climate change cooperation in more than 140 countries. What is more, the CDM has become a blueprint and benchmark for implementing emission reduction schemes worldwide. What happens to the CDM in the future matters for these schemes – several systems allow CERs for compliance, or are mirrored on the mechanism. A new study therefore analyses the legal context of the CDM post 2020. more

Ensuring additionality of Article 6 activities

August 2019 - Under the current international climate policy regime, market mechanisms are to play a key role in helping countries to achieve their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and to support an increase of mitigation ambition over time. In this context, the principle of additionality is crucial as it requires that emission credits are only granted for mitigation activities that are not undertaken in a business-as-usual (BAU) situation. A new study commissioned by the Federal Environment Ministry (BMU) analyses ways to solve the additionality problem in the context of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. more

What carbon pricing can look like

August 2019 - Carbon pricing is increasingly used internationally as a key tool for climate protection. However, there are also examples of public resistance against the introduction of this instrument. In the new study "Tipping the Balance", commissioned by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), six case studies were used to examine what successful policymaking and communication of carbon pricing can look like. more

Article 6.2 and the Transparency Framework

July 2019 - To the surprise of many, Parties in Katowice were able to agree on the “Katowice Climate Package”, a set of decisions that operationalizes the Paris Agreement by laying out clear provisions on how to implement its various components. A rulebook for voluntary cooperation under Article 6, by contrast, was beyond reach in Katowice. Against this backdrop, a new JIKO Policy Paper asks whether the Katowice outcome and its Transparency Framework could be used as a ‘backstop‘ for cooperative approaches under Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement. more