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Research

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The Joint Implementation Coordination Unit (JIKO) within the German Environment Ministry coordinates diverse activities in the context of the two project-based mechanisms, CDM and JI. BMU has contracted the Wuppertal Institute to support JIKO with scientific expertise. The JIKO project team prepares scientific JIKO Policy Papers and shorter JIKO Policy Briefs, analysing individual aspects of the flexible mechanisms, from the evaluation of particular technologies and project types and their applicability in the CDM to the future of flexible mechanisms in an international climate regime beyond the Kyoto Protocol.

Additional to these Papers, relevant research from other sources will be highlighted here occasionally.

The Continuity Question for the Clean Development Mechanism

August 2019 - Over the past 15 years, the Clean Development Mechanism has innovated and transformed global climate change cooperation in more than 140 countries. What is more, the CDM has become a blueprint and benchmark for implementing emission reduction schemes worldwide. What happens to the CDM in the future matters for these schemes – several systems allow CERs for compliance, or are mirrored on the mechanism. A new study therefore analyses the legal context of the CDM post 2020. more

Ensuring additionality of Article 6 activities

August 2019 - Under the current international climate policy regime, market mechanisms are to play a key role in helping countries to achieve their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and to support an increase of mitigation ambition over time. In this context, the principle of additionality is crucial as it requires that emission credits are only granted for mitigation activities that are not undertaken in a business-as-usual (BAU) situation. A new study commissioned by the Federal Environment Ministry (BMU) analyses ways to solve the additionality problem in the context of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. more

What carbon pricing can look like

August 2019 - Carbon pricing is increasingly used internationally as a key tool for climate protection. However, there are also examples of public resistance against the introduction of this instrument. In the new study "Tipping the Balance", commissioned by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), six case studies were used to examine what successful policymaking and communication of carbon pricing can look like. more

Article 6.2 and the Transparency Framework

July 2019 - To the surprise of many, Parties in Katowice were able to agree on the “Katowice Climate Package”, a set of decisions that operationalizes the Paris Agreement by laying out clear provisions on how to implement its various components. A rulebook for voluntary cooperation under Article 6, by contrast, was beyond reach in Katowice. Against this backdrop, a new JIKO Policy Paper asks whether the Katowice outcome and its Transparency Framework could be used as a ‘backstop‘ for cooperative approaches under Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement. more

Operationalizing the "Share of Proceeds" for Article 6

June 2019 - The Share of Proceeds (SOP) is one of the contentious issues in the ongoing negotiations on Article 6. A new policy-oriented study now published by Perspectives and Climate Focus seeks to enhance the base of evidence for these discussions in order to contribute to the elaboration of the rulebook for carbon market instruments under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. more

Towards an Article 6 rulebook adoption

June 2019 - At the climate conference in Katowice, Parties were unable to agree on a rulebook for Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. For this year's climate Conference of the Parties in Chile, the goal is set to adopt this part of the rulebook of the Paris Agreement. Therefore, the German Environment Agency has now published four preliminary discussion papers in which the central aspects of the credit mechanism under Article 6.4.are examined in more detail. more

Analysis of carbon pricing options in Senegal

April 2019 - A recently published research study evaluates various options for the
introduction of domestic carbon pricing instruments in Senegal. The authors find a carbon tax with careful redistribution of revenues as the most promising carbon pricing opportunity for Senegal. more

New study on carbon pricing in the shipping sector

April 2019 - A new study explores different options for a market-based measure for international shipping by comparing an offsetting scheme, an emissions trading scheme, and a climate levy. Based on the assessment of the three options the authors conclude that a climate levy would be the most appropriate measure to steer the shipping sector towards decarbonisation at comparatively low transaction costs. more

Governing Paris Art. 6.4

December 2018 - The new mechanism under Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement is to be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA). However, so far there is no clarity what role exactly the supervisory body (Body) is to play. Against this background, a new JIKO Policy Paper analyses different governance options for Art. 6.4. more

Article 6 and the Global Stocktake

November 2018 - The Global Stocktake and Article 6 of the Paris Agreement are both supposed to support the raising of ambition of global climate action. Yet, thus far the two elements of the Paris Agreement have been discussed mostly in relative iso-lation from each other. A new JIKO Policy Paper aims to change this. more