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Developing Reduction Potential on Multiple Levels via Vertically Integrated NAMAS

Vertically Integrated NAMAs

(Photo: GIZ/Zeller)


Combating climate change calls for greater effort, both in industrialised and developing countries. To contribute to that effort, some developing country governments have proposed nationally appropriate mitigation actions – known as NAMAs. A large percentage of greenhouse gas emissions occur in big cities. Authorities at both province and local level have considerable regulatory powers in a number of relevant sectors, such as waste management, building and construction, and transport. This group of actors must also be involved in planning and implementing NAMAs. But when it comes to integrated approaches, experience is lacking on two levels: little experience has been gained to date on how the interests of these various government levels can be balanced and little practical knowledge is available regarding the instruments needed for effective planning, management and monitoring.      

Using funding provided by the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMU), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) launched the Vertically Integrated NAMA (v-NAMA) programme with the aim of developing a practicable approach for use in integrating differing levels of government into the NAMA design and implementation process. The governments of Indonesia and South Africa have both adopted ambitious national climate change strategies and have decided to test the v-NAMA approach in practice. While Indonesia focuses on developing a v-NAMA for the management and disposal of municipal residual waste, South Africa concentrates on energy efficiency in public buildings.


As a first step, both countries installed national management organizations to which representatives of the relevant ministries and sub-national stakeholders belong. In a second step, project teams comprising GIZ staff and local consultants identified the greatest obstacles to implementation, estimated the emission reduction potential and explored suitable strategies and measures to overcome the obstacles with the help of local specialists. The third step involved using the findings of the analysis to develop a concept paper for each pilot activity. The concept papers served as a set of guidelines for the entire v-NAMA preparation phase. As a fourth step, a consultation process was introduced which involved key national and sub-national stakeholders and saw representatives from relevant government levels attending stakeholder workshops designed to simplify the vertical integration processes.  

On the basis of the steps taken, v-NAMA components were developed. These included the baseline, the business as usual scenario, emission reduction options, reduction costs, positive side-effects, risk assessment, incentives, action plan, capacity-building plan and MRV. The steps were enhanced and underpinned with a second package of measures aimed at developing and disseminating v-NAMA guidelines. The project team developed these guidelines using the experience gained with the pilot activities.


With support from the project team and in close collaboration with five pilot municipalities and their respective provinces, the Indonesian government developed a NAMA proposal for the waste management sector. The vertically integrated NAMA (VIMSWA-NAMA) was integrated into the national NAMA portfolio and presented to international investors. In South Africa, the national government and eight municipalities developed the Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings Programme V-NAMA (EEPBP) which since 2016 has received funding from the NAMA facility to conduct a NAMA support project. Both countries intend to better integrate sub-national stakeholders into their national climate action efforts and to transfer the experience gained in developing the EEPBP NAMA and the VISMSWA NAMA to other sectors. Other countries, such as Georgia and Mexico, used the experience gained with the V-NAMA project when developing their own mitigation measures.

The experiences gained with the pilot activities in South Africa and Indonesia were collated and combined with insights from other vertically integrated climate action measures in Columbia, Mexico, Tunisia and Japan. A synthesis report containing experience-based guidelines and recommendations was distributed in print form, online and at numerous international sectoral-level and climate-specific meetings of experts.

Official project title

V-NAMAS - Vertically integrated NAMAS for including subnational actors in national strategies


Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammearbeit (GIZ) gmbH

Other project partners

South Africa: Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA). Indonesia: National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS)

Project lifecycle

2012 – 2015


Axel Olearius

Further information

V-NAMAS – Integrating sub-national actors into national mitigation strategies through vertically integrated NAMAs

Policy Recommendations, Case Studies and Tools for the integration of sub-national actors in national mitigation actions