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The Joint Implementation Coordination Unit (JIKO) within the German Environment Ministry coordinates diverse activities in the context of the two project-based mechanisms, CDM and JI. BMUB has contracted the Wuppertal Institute to support JIKO with scientific expertise. The JIKO project team prepares scientific JIKO Policy Papers and shorter JIKO Policy Briefs, analysing individual aspects of the flexible mechanisms, from the evaluation of particular technologies and project types and their applicability in the CDM to the future of flexible mechanisms in an international climate regime beyond the Kyoto Protocol.

Additional to these Papers, relevant research from other sources will be highlighted here occasionally.

An Update on Submissions on Article 6 of the Paris Agreement

October 2017 - Article 6 of the Paris Agreement established three approaches for countries to cooperate with each other: cooperative approaches under Art. 6.2, a new mechanism to promote mitigation and sustainable development under Art. 6.4, and a framework for non-market approaches under Art. 6.8. Detailed rules for these three approaches are currently being negotiated. more

Steps Towards Carbon Neutrality

October 2017 - A new JIKO Policy Brief examines the CO2 neutrality commitments of Costa Rica, Norway, Sweden and the City of Melbourne in Australia and Microsoft. All the case studies analyzed have set ambitious neutrality targets and implemented measures to achieve them. However, CO2 neutrality is not achieved entirely by our own efforts, at least not in the short term. The remaining emissions are offset by emission certificates from national compensation systems (Costa Rica) or by international certificates. more

Analysis of Art. 6 submissions

May 2017 - A new JIKO Policy Paper analyses submissions by UNFCCC Parties in March 2017 on suggestions for the Art. 6 rulebook. The paper concludes that compared to the 2016 round of submissions, some conceptual advances can be noted. However, a number of issues continue to be controversial with little indication of a convergence of views. more

Sustainable development benefits under Article 6

April 2017 - A new research report explores possibilities for enhancing the role of sustainable development benefits in the context of activities supported by future market mechanisms under the UNFCCC. The report evaluates the positions of relevant players, identifies barriers for the integration of SD-benefits and develops recommendations for possible solutions. more

What Future for Voluntary Carbon Markets?

January 2017 - More and more individuals and corporations have a desire to offset some of their carbon footprint. To satisfy this demand, a host of voluntary carbon standards have emerged. Originally, these standards operated within the international legal environment of the Kyoto Protocol with legally binding emission reduction obligations for industrialized countries and no such obligations for developing countries. The adoption of the Paris Agreement fundamentally changed the international legal architecture. more

Shaping the Paris Mechanisms

November 2016 - Article 6 of the Paris Agreement established three approaches for countries to cooperate with each other: a new mechanism to promote mitigation and sustainable development, cooperative approaches, and a framework for non-market approaches. The latter two approaches have so far not been clearly defined conceptually. The latest JIKO Policy Paper summarizes the views by Parties and observes that were submitted at the end of September and reveals some sharp differences in opinions on how Art. 6 should work. more

Will International Carbon Trading Become Obsolete?

November 2016 – Economic theory suggests that carbon trading will eventually become obsolete, at the latest, when all emissions are reduced and the world economy relies entirely on climate friendly technologies. The question arises whether there is actually room left for international carbon trading in 2050. To assess this question, a new JIKO Policy Paper analyses a series of very ambitious mitigation scenarios and complements this analysis with a review of several sectoral technology roadmaps. more

Robust Transfers of Mitigation Outcomes

September 2016 – Article 6 of the Paris Agreement allows for new forms of market-based cooperation, allowing Parties to transfer mitigation outcomes that can be used for achieving national climate change mitigation goals. The latest JIKO Policy Paper analyses the risks to environmental integrity associated to the transfers of mitigation outcomes and provides an overview on approaches and tools that could be used for addressing these risks under the Paris Agreement. more

Offsetting for international Aviation

March 2016 - ICAO has decided to develop a global market-based measure (MBM) by means of which excess emissions can be offset through certified emission reductions on the ground. At the ICAO General Assembly in autumn 2016 a decision on the matter is due. A new JIKO Policy Brief summarizes the state of play of the ICAO negotiations as well as discusses the proposed global MBM in the light of the CDM experience and derives recommendations for ICAO’s proposed mechanism. more

Carbon Markets after Paris

February 2016 – The Paris Agreement allows Parties to autonomously define their NDCs (nationally determined contributions), resulting in a large diversity of contributions. This poses significant challenges for emissions accounting and the transfer of emission units. A new JIKO Policy Paper explores these challenges by analysing and assessing different types of NDCs. On that basis, the authors develop opt-in provisions for Parties willing to participate in unit transfers under the new climate regime and illustrate how potential risks to environmental integrity can be addressed. more