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Three speakers at a conference
(Photo: IISD/ENB)

Historically, the flexible mechanisms were defined and developed at the international level, under the auspices of the UNFCCC. Currently, more and more carbon markets are being developed unilaterally by some countries or in collaboration with other countries, but outside of the UN framework.

Network meeting discusses start of China's national ETS

January 2018 - For the past four years or more, the Chinese government has been using pilot projects to gather experience in the lead up to the planned national emissions trading scheme (ETS) which is to be implemented in the near future. Against this backdrop, the AHK Great China Beijing, on behalf of the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMUB), invited industry representatives and experts to a networking meeting on 13 December 2017. At the meeting, some 30 participants gained an insight into how China will transition from its pilot systems to a full-blown national ETS and looked at the potential structural regulations that will apply. more

CMR 4-2017: Breakthrough in Bonn?

November 2017 – This issue of the Carbon Mechanisms Review takes an outlook on the Article 6 negotiations at COP 23 in Bonn and analyses ways how to make progress, with a special emphasis on Article 6.4, as this is with the development of rules, modalities and procedures the most comprehensive product is to be developed. more

An Update on Submissions on Article 6 of the Paris Agreement

October 2017 - Article 6 of the Paris Agreement established three approaches for countries to cooperate with each other: cooperative approaches under Art. 6.2, a new mechanism to promote mitigation and sustainable development under Art. 6.4, and a framework for non-market approaches under Art. 6.8. Detailed rules for these three approaches are currently being negotiated. more

Steps Towards Carbon Neutrality

October 2017 - A new JIKO Policy Brief examines the CO2 neutrality commitments of Costa Rica, Norway, Sweden and the City of Melbourne in Australia and Microsoft. All the case studies analyzed have set ambitious neutrality targets and implemented measures to achieve them. However, CO2 neutrality is not achieved entirely by our own efforts, at least not in the short term. The remaining emissions are offset by emission certificates from national compensation systems (Costa Rica) or by international certificates. more

New Perspectives for Chinese South-South cooperation

September 2017 - On 5 September 2017, the AHK Greater Beijing informed about the framework and prospects of China's South-South Cooperation on climate change, its linkage with the Paris Agreement mechanisms and the options for enhanced South-North collaboration. SSC is recognized as an increasingly important dimension of international collaboration for tackling climate change. more

CMR 3-2017: Writing the Paris Rulebook – Principles and guardrails to keep things in check

September 2017 – This Carbon Mechanisms Review covers an analysis on central ingredients of the Article 6 section of the Paris rulebook. Moreover, a potential case for non-market approaches is presented: the ABM. Other articles cover new challenges for the environmental integrity under Art. 6, possible stumbling blocks on the way to implementing cooperative actions, as well as a review of the future demand for offsets from the aviation sector. more

Opportunities for India to utilise market-based climate policy instruments

September 2017 - A high-level workshop has discussed opportunities for India to utilise market-based climate policy instruments. Jointly organised by the Environment Ministries of the two countries and the German Development Cooperation (GIZ), the event informed stakeholders on the provisions of market mechanisms under the Paris Agreement and discussed strategies on how India can effectively use market mechanisms to achieve its climate mitigation objectives. The documentation of the workshop is now available. more

EB 95 discusses options for CDM use

At its 95th meeting, the CDM Executive Board discussed a range of options for using the CDM, among them use of CERs in national schemes (ETS and carbon tax) and in international aviation, and also use of the CDM infrastructure in connection with results-based finance. Other issues covered at the meeting included digitalisation of CDM procedures, merging the Methodologies Panel and the Small-Scale Work Group, and improving the Sustainable Development Tool. more

Operationalizing Sustainable Development in Art. 6

July 2017 - Contributions to Sustainable Development (SD) are one of the core elements mentioned in Art. 6.1 of the Paris Agreement, which apply to all cooperative approaches under the agreement. A recent BMUB workshop explored how SD assessment could be put in practice, taking into account the different forms of cooperation foreseen in Art. 6. The documentation of the event is now available for download. more

CTI Workshop discusses climate action in international aviation

July 2017 - At this year’s CTI Workshop participants discussed the challenges and opportunities for the new global market-based measure CORSIA as a key instrument for climate action in the civil aviation sector. The workshop revealed that the mechanism holds significant potential for future climate action in the civil aviation sector. In order to fully unlock this potential and make the mechanism operational, existing challenges must be addressed, including the adoption of robust standards and procedures for ensuring its environmental integrity, determining the relationship between CORSIA and the Paris Agreement and establishing the capacities required for launching a successful CORSIA pilot phase. more

JISC 40 Elects Chair and Approves Managment Plan

The 40th meeting of the JI Supervisory Committee (JISC) brought out Albert Williams and Ghergita Nicodim as new chair and vice-chair, respectively. The meeting also saw the adoption of the management plan for 2018-2019. The JISC will mainly promote visibility of the lessons learned from JI activities. The JISC will thus make use of opportunities for input in the development process of the Article 6 rulebook. All further JISC decisions to be taken in 2017 will be made via electronic means. more

First Innovate4Climate outlines roadmap for global climate finance

July 2017 - More than 1,500 experts from national governments, multilateral organisations and the private sector have made the first Innovate4Climate a new and important venue in the climate action arena. Using the Unlock the Trillions slogan, organisers and participants shone the spotlight on how the globally-needed billions in investment for climate change mitigation and adaptation activities can be mobilised to achieve the targets set out in the Paris Agreement. The new conference was held in Barcelona from 22 to 25 May. more

EB 94 decides on further reform steps

At its 94th meeting, the CDM Executive Board set out the reformed support structure. The new Methodologies Panel is to be compiled in such a way that expertise from the former Meth Panel and the Small Scale Working Group is represented. The Secretariat will adjust the relevant procedures and documents in time for the next meeting. The new Methodologies Panel will meet for the first time in September. EB Board-supported initiatives for use of the CDM are bearing fruit: two landfill gas projects that had been stopped in Colombia are now able to continue, in part thanks to crowd funding. more

CMR 2-2017: Pulling together – Public and private finance for climate change mitigation

May 2017 – This ‚Innovate4Climate’ special issue of the Carbon Mechanisms Review covers both carbon markets and climate finance topics, featuring, inter alia, an interview with Karsten Sach, member of the GCF Board, giving his views on the status of the fund, the interdependencies with the CDM, and the interplay with NDCs. The issue also presents four short opinion pieces on the future of the voluntary carbon market. more

NACAG goes online

May 2017 - The Nitric Acid Climate Action Group (NACAG) initiated by the Federal German Government to halt nitrous oxide emissions in nitric acid production is now online with a broad-based offering of news and information in English. The website ( explains NACAG’s approach and goals, provides background information on nitric acid production worldwide and reports on recent developments involving the Group. more

Analysis of Art. 6 submissions

May 2017 - A new JIKO Policy Paper analyses submissions by UNFCCC Parties in March 2017 on suggestions for the Art. 6 rulebook. The paper concludes that compared to the 2016 round of submissions, some conceptual advances can be noted. However, a number of issues continue to be controversial with little indication of a convergence of views. more

How to operationalize Article 6.2?

April 2017 - A new research report maps out issues that need to be resolved to operationalize voluntary cooperation under Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement. A particular focus of the study lies on what may need to be addressed by decisions under the UNFCCC, including those in relation to Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Guidance in these areas needs to be adopted by the CMA at the end of next year. The research was commissioned by Swedish Energy Agency, the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) of Switzerland and BMUB. more